Storyboards are hand-drawn or digitally composed drawings that are used to visually explore the interactions between people and products or...


Scenarios also referred to as future scenarios or user stories ’ use storytelling to explore design ideas by grounding them...

Brainwriting 6-3-5

Brainwriting 6-3-5 is a form of brainstorming that was developed as a way of getting around the group dynamic issues...

Contextual Observation

Contextual observation can be used to study people’s behaviour in different environments, such as workplaces, homes, and public spaces.

Channel Mapping

Channel mapping is a method that goes beyond listing the ways customers are contacted by a company to explore what...


Sketches are tools used by designers to visually represent and depict physical aspects while composing an idea for a product...

Design by Metaphor

Metaphors can be applied in design to explore the problem domain from unusual and competing perspectives, and to reveal the...

Perceptual Maps

Perceptual maps are graphical representations of how people subjectively perceive products or consumer brands available in the market.

Experience Sampling

The experience sampling method (ESM) allows collecting real-time self-reporting data about subjective experiences such as mental state, emotions or thoughts.

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